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Table 1 Clinical characteristics, hemodynamic variables and biochemical data with simultaneous measurements of skeletal muscle rSO2 of 40 patients included

From: The prognostic value of muscle regional oxygen saturation index in severe community-acquired pneumonia: a prospective observational study

Variable Overall (n = 40) Survivors (n = 32) Non-survivors (n = 8)
Demographic data    
 Age (years), mean (SD) 55.5 (15.9) 53 (16.4) 65 (9.8)*
 Male, n (%) 27 (67.5) 21 (65.6) 6 (75.0)
Severity of illness    
 APACHE II score at day 1, median (IQR 25–75) 17 (12–21) 16 (12–20) 22 (18–34)**
 SOFA score at day 1, median (IQR 25–75) 4 (3–5) 4 (3–5) 4 (3–8)
 Major ATS criteria, median (IQR 25–75) 28 (70) 20 (62.5) 8 (100)**
 Invasive mechanical ventilation, n (%) 21 (52.5) 13 (40.6) 8 (100)***
 Severe sepsis, n (%) 18 (44.5) 17 (53.1) 1 (12.5)
 Septic shock, n (%) 22 (55.5) 15 (46.9) 7 (87.5)*
Mean comorbidities, n (%)    
 Tobacco use 3 (8.6) 3 (10.7) 0
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 12 (33.3) 10 (34.3) 2 (28.6)
 Cardiac disease 8 (20) 6 (18.7) 2 (28.6)
 Diabetes mellitus 7 (20) 5 (17.9) 2 (28.6)
 Severe liver disease 1 (2.9) 0 1 (14.3)
Hemodynamic data, median (IQR 25–75)    
 Heart rate, b/min 105 (86–114) 105 (87–114) 105 (85–113)
 Heart rate at 24 h 90 (77–100) 92 (79–103) 85 (70–99)
 Mean arterial pressure, mmHg 79 (71–94) 78 (72–98) 80 (69–88)
 Mean arterial pressure at 24 h 79 (70–93) 76 (70–96) 79 (71–90)
 Central venous pressure, mmHg 11 (9–15) 11 (8–15) 11 (10–14)
 Central venous pressure at 24 h 13 (13–16) 11 (7–16) 14 (12–15)
 Mixed venous oxygen saturation, %a 76 (70–79) 76 (69–79) 74 (74)
 Mixed venous oxygen saturation at 24 ha 70 (68–83) 70 (68–80) 80 (70–91)
Biochemical data, mean (SD)    
 Baseline serum lactate, mM/L 3.0 (3.1) 2.5 (1.6) 4.8 (6.1)
 Serum lactate at 24 h 2.0 (2.2) 1.4 (0.6) 3.9 (4.0)
 Baseline base deficit −3.5 (5.2) −3.6 (5.4) −2.7 (4.3)
 Base deficit at 24 h −2.3 (4.1) −1.9 (4.1) −3.4 (4.2)
 Baseline haemoglobin levels, mg % 11.9 (1.8) 12.1 (1.9) 11.2 (1.1)
 Haemoglobin levels at 24 h 10.6 (1.7) 10.6 (1.9) 10.4 (1.1)
 Baseline serum glucose, mg % 166 (74.7) 158 (75.3) 197 (66.8)
 Serum glucose at 24 h 152 (75.6) 144 (79.4) 177 (58.7)
 Baseline arterial pH 7.34 (0.1) 7.40 (0.1) 7.34 (0.3)
 Arterial pH at 24 h 7.36 (0.07) 7.30 (0.07) 7.32 (0.1)
 Baseline serum creatinine, mg % 1.40 (0.9) 1.38 (1.03) 1.41 (0.8)
 Serum creatinine at 24 h 1.1 (0.59) 0.9 (0.4) 1.5 (0.9)
rSO2 brachioradialsis    
 Baseline rSO2, mean (SD) 62.9 (10.7) 68 (61–72) 46 (43–57)***
 rSO2 at 24 h, mean (SD) 65.4 (12.3) 69 (60–76) 52 (41–57)***
 Baseline rSO2 < 60, n (%) 14 (35) 7 (21.9) 7 (87.5)***
 rSO2 < 60 at 24 h, n (%) 6 (15.8) 4 (12.5) 7 (87.5)***
Therapy, mean (SD)    
 Norepinephrine at baseline μg/kg/min 0.35 (0.26) 0.40 (0.14) 0.29 (0.36)
 Norepinephrine at 24 h, μg/kg/min 0.35 (0.29) 0.22 (0.28) 0.52 (0.23)*
 Fluid balance at 24 h, mL 1650 (1350) 1470 (800) 2300 (2500)
ICU length of stay    
 Median IQR 25–75 % 18 (11–30) 18 (11–31) 24 (8–30)
  1. SD standard deviation, IQR interquartile range, APACHE II Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation, SOFA Sequential Organ Failure Assessment, ATS American Thoracic Society, rSO 2 regional oxygen saturation index
  2. For survivors vs. non-survivors comparison *p = 0.01; **p < 0.05; ***p < 0.001
  3. aOnly 11 patients