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Table 1 Patient characteristics, details of surgery, laboratory investigation, and prognostic outcomes

From: Incidence and risk factors of delirium in multi-center Thai surgical intensive care units: a prospective cohort study

  Delirium (n = 162) Non delirium (n = 4288) P
Variables    
 Age (year) mean ± SD 65.3 ± 15.6 61.8 ± 17.3 0.013
  <40 (n, %) 11 (6.8) 537 (12.5)  
  40–70 (n, %) 76 (47.0) 2175 (50.7)  
  >70 (n, %) 75 (46.2) 1576 (36.8)  
 Male (n, %) 102 (63.0) 2505 (58.4) 0.249
 Body mass index (kg/m2) (mean ± SD) 22.0 ± 4.6 23.0 ± 5.7 0.031
 ASA PS (n, %)    <0.001
  I–II 26 (23.6) 1291(39.0)  
  III 58 (52.7) 1620 (49.0)  
  IV–VI 26 (23.6) 392 (12.0)  
 Comorbidity (n, %)    
  Hypertension 75 (46.3) 2130 (49.7) 0.399
  Diabetes mellitus 33 (20.4) 946 (22.1) 0.610
  Coronary artery disease 15 (9.4) 433 (10.1) 0.728
  Congestive heart failure 11 (6.8) 93 (2.2) <0.001
  COPD 21 (12.9) 184 (4.3) <0.001
  Chronic renal failure 25 (15.4) 406 (9.5) 0.012
 Smoking history (n, %)    <0.001
  Current smokers 32 (19.7) 498 (11.6)  
  Ex-smokers 50 (30.8) 1054 (24.6)  
  Non smokers 80 (49.4) 2736 (63.8)  
 Numbers of pack years median (P25–75) 15.5( 10–25) 15 (6–30) 0.631
 Numbers of operative patients (n, %) 119 (73.5) 3377 (79.8) 0.118
 Sites of SICU (n, %)    <0.001
  Site A (incidence 1.9 %) 18 (11.1) 922 (21.5)  
  Site B (incidence 1.2 %) 5 (3.1) 404 (9.4)  
  Site C (incidence 2.7 %) 15 (9.3) 545 (12.7)  
  Site D (incidence 1.9 %) 8 (5.0) 402 (9.3)  
  Site E (incidence 0.8 %) 3 (1.8) 390 (9.1)  
  Site F (incidence 0 %) 0 139 (3.2)  
  Site G (incidence 13.9 %) 109 (67.3) 675 (15.7)  
  Site H (incidence 0.8 %) 3 (1.8) 368 (8.6)  
  Site I (incidence 0.2 %) 1 (0.6) 443 (10.5)  
 Emergency surgery (n, %) 79 (66.4) 987 (29.2) <0.001
 Site of surgery (n, %)    
  Upper abdomen 56 (34.6) 1182 (27.6) 0.051
  Lower abdomen 43 (26.5) 1178 (27.5) 0.795
  Thoracic 15 (9.8) 162 (3.8) <0.001
  Vascular 5 (3.1) 134 (3.1) 0.978
  Extremities 14 (8.6) 371 (8.3) 0.883
  Anus 1 (0.62) 52 (1.2) 0.493
  Other surgeries 28 (17.2) 1209 (28.2) 0.001
 Duration of surgery (min) median (P25–75) 180 (105–275) 240 (150–360) <0.001
 Amount of PRC transfusion (ml) median (P25–75) 100 (0–635) 0 (0–511) 0.274
 Amount of FFP transfusion (ml) median (P25–75) 0 (0–780) 0 (0–0) <0.001
 APACHE II median (P25–75) 16 (12–23) 10 (7–15) <0.001
 SOFA median (P25–75) 5 (2–8) 2 (1–5) <0.001
 Sepsis (n, %) 109 (67.3) 779 (18.2) <0.001
 Mechanical ventilation (n, %) 141 (87.0) 2635 (61.8) <0.001
 Albumin (g/dl) (mean ± SD) 2.4 ± 0.85 2.8 ± 0.80 <0.001
 Hemoglobin (g/dl) (mean ± SD) 9.7 ± 2.6 10.6 ± 2.1 <0.001
 Blood sugar (mg%) (mean ± SD) 144.0 ± 72.0 164.1 ± 68.8 0.013
 PaO2 (mmHg) (mean ± SD) 144.0 ± 72.1 164.1 ± 0.81 0.013
 Exposure to sedative drugs (n, %) 110 (67.9) 932 (21.7) <0.001
 Exposure to analgesic drugs (n, %) 134(82.7) 3683 (85.9) 0.256
 ICU admission diagnosis (n, %)    0.005
  Abdominal 71 (43.8) 1728 (40.3)  
  Cardiovascular 31 (19.1) 662 (15.4)  
  Respiratory 17 (10.5) 335 (7.8)  
  Renal 10 (6.2) 356 (8.3)  
  Other 33 (20.4) 1207 (28.2)  
Prognostic outcomes    
 Ventilator days (days) median (P25–75) 7 (4–17) 2 (1–4) <0.001
 Length of ICU stay (days) median (P25–75) 8 (5–19) 2 (1–4) <0.001
 Duration of hospital stay (days) median(P25–75) 22 (14–34) 15 (9–26) <0.001
 ICU mortality (n, %) 38 (23.5) 349 (8.1) <0.001
 28-day mortality (n, %) 45 (27.8) 534 (12.4) <0.001
  1. Data are presented as mean ± standard deviation (SD), median and 25 and 75 % interquartile range, and number (%)
  2. ASA PS American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, PRC packed red cell, FFP fresh frozen plasma, APACHE II Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II, SOFA sequential organ failure assessment, ICU intensive care unit