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Table 2 Fluid challenge methods for the detection of FR

From: Fluid responsiveness in acute circulatory failure

Parameter Cut-off value Evidence Limitations
PLR [26, 53, 75] 10 % increase in aortic flow or CI Meta-analysis Not feasible in intraoperative situations and some surgical patients; needs CO monitoring
EEO [26, 7679] 5 % increase in CO Cohort Needs MV; needs CO monitoring
PEEP-induced increase in CVP [80] 1.5 mmHg Cohort Tried only in cardiac surgery patients
PEEP-induced decrease in MAP [81] NA Cohort Useful only in identifying non-responders
Arm occlusion pressure [82] 21.9 mmHg Cohort Tried only in cardiac surgery patients
Mini-fluid challenge [83] 10 % increase in subaortic VTI Cohort Needs echocardiography with experienced operator
10-s fluid challenge [84] 9 % increase in CO or SV Cohort Needs CO or SV monitoring
  1. PLR passive leg raising, EEO end expiratory occlusion, PEEP positive end expiratory pressure, CVP central venous pressure, MAP mean arterial pressure, CO cardiac output, CI cardiac index, SV stroke volume, BP blood pressure, VTI velocity time integral, NA not available