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Table 3 Association between demographic, clinical, and facility characteristics and in-hospital mortality

From: Demographic and clinical risk factors associated with hospital mortality after isolated severe traumatic brain injury: a cohort study

Exposure Model 1 (RR, 95 % CI)a Model 2 (RR, 95 % CI)b
Demographic characteristics   
Age   
 18–44 ref ref
 45–64 1.63 (1.49–1.79) 1.62 (1.40–1.89)
 65–79 2.58 (2.34–2.85) 2.63 (2.23–3.10)
 80+ 3.92 (3.54–4.34) 3.84 (3.22–4.58)
Male gender 1.17 (1.09–1.25) 1.12 (1.01–1.25)
Clinical characteristics   
 Admission hypotension (SBP <90 mmHg) 1.83 (1.61–2.09) 1.71 (1.37–2.13)
 Admission heart rate <60 bpm ref ref
 Admission heart rate 60–100 bpm 0.82 (0.74–0.90) 0.88 (0.75–1.03)
 Admission heart rate >100 bpm 0.88 (0.79–0.97) 0.95 (0.80–1.12)
 Need for mechanical ventilation during hospitalization 4.18 (3.64–4.80) 4.40 (3.72–5.21)
Injury severity   
 ISS <9 ref ref
 ISS 9–15 0.89 (0.67–1.17) 1.33 (0.75–2.37)
 ISS 16+ 1.86 (1.41–2.45) 2.92 (1.67–5.12)
Neurologic   
 GCS 13–15 ref ref
 GCS 9–12 1.70 (1.51–1.90) 1.70 (1.43–2.02)
 GCS ≤8 3.06 (2.74–3.43) 3.04 (2.60–3.55)
Facility characteristics   
University/teaching hospital 1.04 (0.95–1.15) 1.04 (0.91–1.20)
Hospital bed size   
 Small (<200 beds) ref ref
 Medium (201–400 beds) 1.00 (0.82–1.23) 1.11 (0.87–1.41)
 Large (>400 beds) 1.04 (0.95–1.15) 1.18 (0.92–1.50)
Trauma hospital designation 0.99 (0.90–1.09) 0.95 (0.84–1.08)
  1. aModel 1 includes trauma designation, teaching status, hospital size, age, gender, admission hypotension, admission GCS, admission ISS, and ventilator requirement during hospitalization
  2. bModel 2 includes all variables in model 1 as well as race, insurance status, hospital profit status, number of neurosurgeons at facility, and facility region