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Table 4 Systematic offering of family presence compared to usual care for families of pediatric patients undergoing resuscitation

From: The offering of family presence during resuscitation: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Outcomes No. of participants (studies) follow-up Quality of the evidence (GRADE) Relative effect (95 % CI) Anticipated absolute effectsa
Risk with usual care Risk difference with systematic offering of family presence
Mortality prior to 28 days or discharge 705 (1 RCT) Lowbc OR 0.30 (0.11 to 0.79) Study population
57 per 1000 39 fewer per 1000 (50 fewer to 11 fewer)
Duration of resuscitation 705 (1 RCT) Lowbc - The mean duration of resuscitation in the control group was 15 min Median 0 higher (1 lower to 1 higher)
Time to key intervention assessed with: CT scan (trauma arrest) or first shock (cardiac arrest) 705 (1 RCT) Lowbc - The mean time to key intervention in the control group was 21 min Median 0 higher (2 lower to 2 higher)
  1. CI confidence interval, RCT randomized controlled trial, RR risk ratio, OR odds ratio, CT computed tomography
  2. GRADE Working Group grades of evidence
  3. High quality: We are very confident that the true effect lies close to that of the estimate of the effect
  4. Moderate quality: We are moderately confident in the effect estimate: The true effect is likely to be close to the estimate of the effect, but there is a possibility that it is substantially different
  5. Low quality: Our confidence in the effect estimate is limited: The true effect may be substantially different from the estimate of the effect
  6. Very low quality: We have very little confidence in the effect estimate: The true effect is likely to be substantially different from the estimate of effect
  7. aThe risk in the intervention group (and its 95 % confidence interval) is based on the assumed risk in the comparison group and the relative effect of the intervention (and its 95 % CI)
  8. bStudy randomization on basis of even/odd days rather than on an individual basis
  9. cStudy included only pediatric patients undergoing trauma resuscitation; no children with primarily cardiac arrest were included