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Table 3 Systematic offering of family presence compared to usual care for families of adult patients undergoing resuscitation

From: The offering of family presence during resuscitation: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Outcomes No. of participants (studies) follow-up Quality of the evidence (GRADE) Relative effect (95 % CI) Anticipated absolute effectsa
Risk with usual care Risk difference with systematic offering of family presence
Prehospital and emergency department mortality 683 (3 RCTs) Moderatec OR 0.80 (0.54 to 1.19) Study population
819 per 1000 36 fewer per 1000 (110 fewer to 24 more)
Mortality at 28 days 570 (1 RCT) Moderatec OR 1.24 (0.50 to 3.03) Study population
961 per 1000 7 more per 1000 (36 fewer to 26 more)
Duration of Resuscitation 570 (1 RCT) Moderateb - The mean duration of resuscitation in the control group was 30 min Median 0 higher (0.01 lower to 0.01 higher)
Tine to key intervention assessed with: CT scan (trauma arrest) or first shock (cardiac arrest) 570 (1 RCT) Moderatec - The mean time to key intervention in the control group was 18 min The mean time to key intervention in the intervention group was 3 lower (1.2 lower to 0.85 lower)
Symptoms of anxiety in family members assessed with: Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) follow-up: 3 months 330 (2 RCTs) 3 months Moderateb - The mean symptoms of anxiety in family members in the control group was 6.19 MD 0.99 lower (1.77 lower to 0.22 lower)
Symptoms of depression in family members assessed with: Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) follow-up: 3 months 330 (2 RCTs) 3 months Moderateb - The mean symptoms of depression in family members in the control group was 5.16 MD 1 lower (1.78 lower to 0.23 lower)
Symptoms of PTSD (intrusion) assessed with: Impact of Events Scale (IES) follow-up: 3 months 375 (2 RCTs) 3 months Moderateb - The mean symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder in the control group was 15.01 MD 1 lower (1.96 lower to 0.03 lower)
Symptoms of PTSD (avoidance) assessed with: Impact of Events Scale (IES) follow-up: 3 months 375 (2 RCTs) 3 months Moderateb - The mean symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder in the control group was 8.26 MD 0.01 lower (1.11 lower to 1.09 higher)
Suicide attempts by family members follow-up: 9 months 465 (1 RCT) 9 months Moderatec OR 7.08 (0.39 to 128.79) Study population
0 per 1000 0 fewer per 1000 (0 fewer to 0 fewer)
  1. CI confidence interval, RCT randomized controlled trial, RR risk ratio, OR odds ratio, CT computed tomography
  2. GRADE working group grades of evidence
  3. High quality: We are very confident that the true effect lies close to that of the estimate of the effect
  4. Moderate quality: We are moderately confident in the effect estimate: The true effect is likely to be close to the estimate of the effect, but there is a possibility that it is substantially different
  5. Low quality: Our confidence in the effect estimate is limited: The true effect may be substantially different from the estimate of the effect
  6. Very low quality: We have very little confidence in the effect estimate: The true effect is likely to be substantially different from the estimate of effect
  7. aThe risk in the intervention group (and its 95 % confidence interval) is based on the assumed risk in the comparison group and the relative effect of the intervention (and its 95 % CI)
  8. bUnable to precisely estimate mean difference; data reported as median and IQR (presumed skewed data)
  9. cWide confidence intervals crossing the line of no effect