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Table 2 Characteristics of patients according to the duration of EMSs’ CPR

From: Effects of prehospital epinephrine administration on neurological outcomes in patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest

Group Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Group 4
<15 min 15–19 min 20–26 min ≥27 min
Characteristics Epinephrine No epinephrine P value Epinephrine No epinephrine P value Epinephrine No epinephrine P value Epinephrine No epinephrine P value
Cases 2766 90,681   5597 90,281   8179 85,490   12,525 88,292  
Age, mean (SD), years 72.91 (15.1) 72.78 (16.7) 0.669 73.61 (14.9) 73.90 (16.2) 0.192 73.75 (15.4) 73.70 (16.2) 0.784 72.81 (15.4) 73.03 (16.3) 0.159
Male sex 1,673 (60.5) 52,377 (57.8) 0.004 3409 (60.9) 50,981 (56.5) <0.001 5103 (62.4) 48,810 (57.1) <0.001 8086 (64.6) 51,757 (58.6) <0.001
Bystander eyewitness 1,649 (59.6) 34,143 (37.7) <0.001 3032 (54.2) 29,389 (32.6) <0.001 4415 (54.0) 28,018 (32.8) <0.001 6985 (55.8) 29,496 (33.4) <0.001
CPR initiated by bystander (non medically trained citizen) 1,407 (50.9) 39,423 (43.5) <0.001 2755 (49.2) 39,778 (44.1) <0.001 3897 (47.6) 35,778 (41.9) <0.001 5633 (45.0) 33,995 (38.5) <0.001
 Chest compression 1391 (50.5) 38,763 (42.9) <0.001 2725 (49.0) 39,206 (43.6) <0.001 3863 (47.5) 35,251 (41.4) <0.001 5580 (44.8) 33,481 (38.0) <0.001
 Rescue breathing 427 (15.5) 12,185 (13.5) 0.003 776 (14.0) 11,957 (13.3) 0.162 1112 (13.7) 10,725 (12.6) 0.005 1640 (13.2) 10,463 (11.9) <0.001
 Use of public-access AED 31 (1.1) 632 (0.7) 0.012 58 (1.0) 375 (0.4) <0.001 82 (1.0) 333 (0.4) <0.001 121 (1.0) 350 (0.4) <0.001
Origin of cardiac arrest             
 Cardiac 1407 (54.3) 45,556 (52.9) 0.065 3110 (58.9) 46,811 (54.3) <0.001 4681 (60.4) 44,692 (54.4) <0.001 7454 (62.0) 46,352 (53.9) <0.001
 Not cardiac 694 (26.8) 22,557 (26.2) 1216 (23.0) 22,906 (26.6) 1763 (22.8) 22,020 (26.8) 2671 (22.2) 23,488 (27.3)
 Exogenous origin 492 (19.0) 17,958 (20.9) 954 (18.1) 16,538 (19.2) 1305 (16.8) 15,380 (18.7) 1895 (15.8) 16,128 (18.8)
Primary ECG rhythm             
 VF 467 (16.9) 9515 (10.5) <0.001 747 (13.3) 5223 (5.8) <0.001 1029 (12.6) 4743 (5.5) <0.001 1656 (13.2) 4583 (5.2) <0.001
 non VF 2299 (83.1) 81,166 (89.5) 4850 (86.7) 85,058 (94.2) 7150 (87.4) 80,747 (94.5) 10,869 (86.8) 83,709 (94.8)
Life support by EMS personnel             
 Defibrillation 562 (20.3) 11,192 (12.4) <0.001 1011 (18.1) 7443 (8.3) <0.001 1494 (18.3) 7144 (8.4) <0.001 2730 (21.8) 7457 (8.5) <0.001
 Advanced airway management 1822 (65.9) 26,738 (29.5) <0.001 3981 (71.2) 40,621 (45.0) <0.001 6258 (76.6) 44,293 (51.9) <0.001 9805 (78.4) 48,849 (55.4) <0.001
Time, mean (SD), min             
 Time from call to CPR initiation 8.63 (3.7) 8.45 (4.5) 0.034 8.58 (3.5) 8.70 (3.8) 0.02 8.99 (3.6) 9.14 (4.0) 0.001 10.13 (5.0) 10.20 (5.4) 0.188
 Time from call to arrival at hospital 29.00 (10.8) 21.95 (7.1) <0.001 29.26 (7.4) 26.85 (4.4) <0.001 33.51 (5.8) 32.47 (4.6) <0.001 45.83 (11.5) 44.98 (11.5) <0.001
 EMSs’ CPR duration 12.61 (2.3) 11.51 (3.3) <0.001 18.25 (1.3) 18.01 (1.4) <0.001 23.42 (1.7) 23.26 (1.7) <0.001 35.17 (9.0) 34.74 (9.3) <0.001
Outcome             
 ROSC 1561 (56.4) 11,860 (13.1) <0.001 1,413 (25.2) 1430 (1.6) <0.001 1211 (14.8) 665 (0.8) <0.001 903 (7.2) 394 (0.4) <0.001
 1-month survival 503 (18.2) 8867 (9.8) <0.001 418 (7.5) 2181 (2.4) <0.001 297 (3.6) 1,284 (1.5) <0.001 230 (1.8) 926 (1.0) <0.001
 CPC 1 or 2 136 (4.9) 4522 (5.0) 0.924 92 (1.6) 484 (0.5) <0.001 59 (0.7) 239 (0.3) <0.001 52 (0.4) 185 (0.2) <0.001
  1. The data are expressed as number (%), unless otherwise indicated
  2. EMS emergency medical service, CPR cardiopulmonary resuscitation, AED automated external defibrillator, VF ventricular fibrillation, EMS emergency medical service, ROSC return of spontaneous circulation, CPC cerebral performance category