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Table 1 Characteristics of patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest according to epinephrine administration (n = 383,811)

From: Effects of prehospital epinephrine administration on neurological outcomes in patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest

  Epinephrine No Epinephrine P value
(n = 29067) (n = 354744)
Age, mean (SD), years 73.24 (15.3) 73.35 (16.4) 0.275
Male sex 18271 (62.9) 203925 (57.5) <0.001
Bystander eyewitness 16081 (55.3) 121046 (34.1) <0.001
CPR initiated by bystander 13692 (47.1) 148974 (42.0) <0.001
 Chest compression 13559 (46.9) 146701 (41.5) <0.001
 Rescue breathing 3955 (13.7) 45330 (12.9) <0.001
 Use of public-access AED 292 (1.0) 1690 (0.5) <0.001
Intrinsic origin of cardiac arrest    
 Cardiac 16652 (60.2) 183411 (53.9) <0.001
 Non cardiac 6344 (23.0) 90971 (26.7)
 Exogenous origin 4646 (16.8) 66004 (19.4)
Primary ECG rhythm    
 VF 3899 (13.4) 24064 (6.8) <0.001
 Non VF 25168 (86.6) 330680 (93.2)
Life support by EMS personnel    
 Defibrillation 5797 (20.0) 33236 (9.4) <0.001
 Advanced airway management 21866 (75.3) 160501 (45.3) <0.001
Time, mean (SD), min    
 Time from call to CPR initiation 9.37 (4.3) 9.11 (4.5) <0.001
 Time from call to arrival at the hospital 37.6 (11.9) 31.5 (11.4) <0.001
 EMSs’ CPR duration 26.5 (10.1) 21.8 (9.9) <0.001
Outcome    
 ROSC 5088 (17.5) 14349 (4.0) <0.001
 1-month survival 1448 (5.0) 13258 (3.7) <0.001
 CPC 1 or 2 339 (1.2) 5430 (1.5) <0.001
  1. Data are expressed as number (%), unless otherwise indicated
  2. CPR cardiopulmonary resuscitation, AED automated external defibrillator, VF ventricular fibrillation, EMS emergency medical service, ROSC return of spontaneous circulation, CPC cerebral performance category