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Table 1 Relevant patient variables and baseline characteristics of patients enrolled in this study

From: Effect of enteral diet enriched with eicosapentaenoic acid, gamma-linolenic acid, and antioxidants in patients with sepsis-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome

  Study group ( n = 23) Control group ( n = 23) p value
Age, years 71 (66–77) 74 (60–80) 0.717
Gender, n (%)    0.314
 Male 15 (65.2) 19 (82.6)  
 Female 8 (34.8) 4 (17.4)  
Reason for admission, n (%)    0.418
 Medical 5 (21.7) 6 (26.1) NS
 Elective surgery 6 (2.1) 4 (17.4) NS
 Trauma 4 (17.4) 9 (39.1) NS
 Emergency surgery 5 (21.7) 3 (13.0) NS
 Burn 3 (13.0) 1 (4.3) NS
EN start time, hours 20 (8–24) 20 (8–24) 0.805
Catecholamine use, n (%) 16 (69.6) 14 (60.9) 0.758
Baseline comorbidities, n (%)    
 Hypertension 12 (52.2) 14 (60.9) 0.767
 Cardiac disease 11 (47.8) 7 (30.4) 0.365
 Diabetes mellitus 7 (30.4) 5 (21.7) 0.738
 Oncological disease 2 (8.7) 4 (17.4) 0.665
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 2 (8.7) 3 (13.0) 1.000
 Chronic kidney disease 2 (8.7) 3 (13.0) 1.000
 Cerebrovascular disease 2 (8.7) 3 (13.0) 1.000
 Liver disease 1 (4.3) 1 (4.3) 1.000
APACHE II score on onset 24 (21–28) 23 (21–26) 0.860
SOFA score on onset 10 (6–13) 9 (8–13) 0.947
No. of organ failures, n (%)    0.274
  1 8 (34.8) 6 (26.1) NS
  2 6 (26.1) 12 (52.2) NS
  3 7 (30.4) 3 (13.0) NS
  4 2 (8.7) 2 (8.7) NS
Infection sites, n (%)    0.851
 Pulmonary 7 (30.4) 9 (39.1) NS
 Bacteremia 4 (17.4) 6 (26.1) NS
 Abdomen 3 (13.0) 3 (13.0) NS
 Soft tissue 2 (8.7) 2 (8.7) NS
 Burn wound 3 (13.0) 1 (4.3) NS
 Urinary tract 3 (13.0) 1 (4.3) NS
 Others 1 (4.3) 1 (4.3) NS
Tidal volume, mL/kg 7.1 (6.6–7.8) 7.0 (6.3–8.4)  
PEEP, cmH2O 11.0 (9.0–15.0) 11.0 (9.0–14.0)  
Plateau airway pressure, cmH2O 28.2 (23.6–30.6) 26.8 (21.6–31.5)  
Respiratory rate, breaths/min 23.0 (17.0–27.0) 22.0 (18.0–25.0)  
Ejection fraction, % 62.4 (43.7–69.3) (n = 21) 61.3 (45.0–78.5) (n = 19)  
Sivelestat sodium use, n (%) 21 (91.3) 19 (82.6)  
Steroid use, n (%) 11 (47.8) 12 (52.2)  
Sedation drugs    
 Midazolam use, n (%) 19 (82.6) 21 (91.3)  
 Propofol use, n (%) 3 (13.0) 2 (8.7)  
 Dexmedetomidine use, n (%) 4 (17.4) 4 (17.4)  
 Analgesics    
 Fentanyl, n (%) 15 (65.2) 13 (56.5)  
 Buprenorphine, n (%) 8 (34.8) 10 (43.5)  
Actual body weight, kg 60 (55–66) 63 (58–66) 0.409
Ideal body weight, kg 59.9 (54.2–62.1) 59.9 (56.3–60.6) 0.930
Body mass index 23.2 (21.3–23.7) 23.1 (22.0–23.9) 0.684
Goal calories, kcal/day 1453.6 (1347.9–1574.0) 1454.2 (1364.5–1569.6) 0.956
  Day 7 Day 14 Day 7 Day 14  
Calorie intake, kcal/kg/daya 18.78 (18.12–20.21) 24.22 (23.32–25.90) 19.48 (15.73–20.68) 24.32 (22.67–25.75)  
Protein intake, g/kg/dayb 0.781 (0.700–0.837) 0.988 (0.933–1.063) 0.613 (0.529–0.683) 0.810 (0.749–0.863)  
  1. NS Not Significant, EN Enteral Nutrition, APACHE Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation, SOFA Sequential Organ Failure Assessment, PEEP Positive end-expiratory pressure. aThe difference at day 7 or day 14 is not statistically significant with p = 0.965 and p = 0.818, respectively; bThe differences at day 7 and day 14 are both statistically significant (p < <0.001).