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Table 2 Methodological quality of included studies

From: Epidemiology, prevention, and treatment of new-onset atrial fibrillation in critically ill: a systematic review

Author, year [ref] Main outcome Study design Risk of bias Indirectness Imprecision a Overall quality
Bender JS, 1996 [49] Etiology/outcome Prospective (0.5), observational (2) AF diagnosis unclear (−1) Mortality not evaluated (−0.5)   Very low (1)
Seguin P, 2004 [50] Etiology/outcome Prospective (0.5), observational (2)     Low (2.5)
Seguin P, 2006 [51] Etiology/outcome Prospective (0.5), observational (2)   Only trauma patients (−0.5)   Low (2)
Seguin P, 2006 [51] Treatment Prospective (0.5), observational (2)   Absence of definition for conversion time (−1) N = 16 (−1) Very low (0.5)
Arora S, 2007 [52] Etiology/outcome Prospective (0.5), observational (2)    N = 61 (−1) Very low (1.5)
Christian SA, 2008 [26] Etiology/outcome Observational (2) Retrospective diagnosis of AF (−1) Only septic patients (−0.5)   Very low (0.5)
Meierhenrich R, 2010 [53] Etiology/outcome Prospective (0.5), observational (2)     Low (2.5)
Meierhenrich R, 2010 [53] Treatment Prospective (0.5), observational (2)   Unknown efficacy of each treatment (−1) N = 49 (−1) Very low (0.5)
Walkey AJ, 2011 [54] Etiology/outcome Observational (2) Retrospective diagnosis of AF (−1) Only septic patients (−0.5) N = 49,082 (+2) Low (2.5)
Kanji S, 2012 [55] Etiology/outcome Observational (2) Retrospective diagnosis of AF (−1)   N = 2,895 (+1) Low (3)
Kanji S, 2012 [55] Treatment Observational (2) Retrospective diagnosis of AF (−1) Unknown efficacy of each treatment (−1)   Very low (0)
Tongyaoo S, 2013 [56] Etiology/outcome Prospective (0.5), observational (2)     Low (2.5)
Makrygiannis SS, 2014 [57] Etiology/outcome Prospective (0.5), observational (2)   Mortality not evaluated (−0.5)   Low (2)
Balser JR, 1998 [60] Treatment Randomized (4) Open label (−0.5), Allocation concealment unclear (−0.5) Mortality not evaluated (−0.5) N = 64 (−1) Very low (1.5)
Sleeswijk ME, 2008 [61] Treatment Prospective (0.5), observational (2)   Mortality not evaluated (−0.5) N = 29 (−1) Very low (1)
  1. aSample size: N > 10,000 (+2), N ≥ 1,000 (+1), N < 100 (−1).