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Table 4 Fecal organic acid concentrations and pH

From: A pilot study of Bifidobacterium breve in neonates undergoing surgery for congenital heart disease

   Surgery
Before BBG Before Immediately after 1 week after
Group A Group B Group A Group B Group A Group B Group A Group B
n = 7   n = 10 n = 11 n = 10 n = 11 n = 10 n = 11
Total organic acids 21.7 [14.1–34.8] (100) NT 52.6 [29.7–64.9] (100) 31.9 [26.2–62.9] (100) 61.3 [51.5–99.8]**, *** (100) 40.7 [17.1–48.5] (100) 95.2 [61.0–105.4]*, *** (100) 48.0 [39.9–88.6] (100)
Succinic acid 6.3 [4.9–8.2] (57) NT 10.6 [8.6–14.2] (70) 16.2 [7.8–30.9] (73) 3.5 [1.3–15.0] (70) 11.2 [7.2–21.7] (45) 9.4 [1.9–15.2] (90) 3.3 [2.5–21.5] (64)
Lactic acid 10.0 [6.2–18.0] (57) NT 7.8 [3.0–15.5] (70) 4.9 [4.2–7.1] (64) 8.9 [7.2–10.8] (90) 7.3 [5.5–8.3] (45) 18.8 [5.1–27.7] (100) 14.6 [3.8–24.2] (73)
Formic acid 3.6 [2.4–4.7] (29) NT 2.6 [1.5–4.7] (60) 3.3 [2.5–6.4] (36) 5.4 [3.9–5.9] (60) 2.5 [1.5–3.4] (91) 2.2 [1.1–3.4] (50) 2.5 [1.9–3.8] (64)
Acetic acid 12.2 [7.3–21.7] (100) NT 31.3 [22.6–46.4]*** (100) 20.1 [16.6–29.4] (100) 46.9 [41.0–69.0]**, ***, **** (100) 20.4 [10.3–31.0] (100) 53.8 [39.7–73.4]*, *** (100) 36.7 [11.8–47.5] (100)
Propionic acid 0.9 (14) NT 2.4 [2.0–5.0] (30) 4.4 [3.6–5.6] (36) 4.5 [2.7–6.2] (20) 3.1 [1.9–4.2] (18) 7.9 [4.5–7.9] (30) 13.3 [4.2–23.5] (36)
Butyric acid <0.55 (0) NT <0.55 (0) 0.8 (9) <0.55 (0) 3.6 [2.2–4.9] (18) <0.55 (0) 2.9 [1.7–4.2] (18)
Isovaleric acid <0.8 (0) NT <0.8 (0) 7.0 (9) <0.8 (0) <0.8 (0) <0.8 (0) 2.7 (9)
Valeric acid <0.65 (0) NT <0.65 (0) <0.65 (0) <0.65 (0) <0.65 (0) <0.65 (0) <0.55 (0)
pH 6.7 [6.4–7.4] (100)   5.5 [5.3–6.0] (100) 6.3 [6.0–6.9] (100) 5.4 [5.3–6.4] (100) 6.4 [6.1–6.7] (100) 5.6 [5.5–5.6]*** (100) 6.0 [5.6–6.3] (100)
  1. Values are median log10 cells/g [IQR] (% detection rate). NT not tested. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01 vs. group B, ***p < 0.05 vs. before initiating BBG, ****p < 0.05 vs. before surgery.