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Table 3 Fecal microorganisms

From: A pilot study of Bifidobacterium breve in neonates undergoing surgery for congenital heart disease

   Surgery
Before BBG Before Immediately after 1 week after
Group A Group B Group A Group B Group A Group B Group A Group B
n = 7   n = 10 n = 11 n = 10 n = 11 n = 10 n = 11
Total 9.7 [8.9–9.9] (100) NT 9.8 [9.1–10.2] (100) 9.7 [9.3–9.9] (100) 9.9 [9.5–10.6]**** (100) 9.8 [8.7–10.0] (100) 9.9 [9.5–10.1] (100) 9.8 [9.5–9.9] (100)
Obligate anaerobes
  Clostridium coccoides group 8.7 [8.6–8.8] (29) NT 6.4 [6.2–7.2] (30) 7.3 [6.2–8.4] (18) 7.9 [7.3–8.4] (40) 8.6 [8.1–8.6] (27) 6.2 [6.0–6.7] (50) 8.4 [7.2–9.0] (36)
  C. leptum subgroup 6.3 [6.2–6.3] (29) NT 5.6 [5.5–5.7] (20) 6.6 [6.3–7.4] (36) 6.0 [5.6–6.3] (20) 8.3 [7.8–8.8] (27) 5.9 [5.7–6.5] (30) 8.1 [7.6–8.5] (27)
  Bacteroides fragilis group 9.5 [8.7–9.6] (71) NT 9.0 [8.5–9.6] (60) 9.4 [9.3–10.1] (45) 8.4 [7.0–9.3] (60) 9.3 [9.2–9.9] (45) 9.4 [8.6–9.6] (70) 9.1 [8.8–9.2] (45)
  Bifidobacterium 7.0 [6.2–7.7] (42) NT 9.5 [9.0–9.8]**, *** (100) 9.0 [7.9–9.1] (27) 9.7 [9.4–10.2]**, ***, **** (100) 8.9 [8.8–9.6] (45) 9.7 [9.2–9.9]**, *** (100) 9.2 [8.9–9.6] (45)
  Bifidobacterium breve Yakult <6.0 (0) NT 9.1 [8.4–9.7]**, *** (100) <6.0 (0) 9.2 [8.6–9.5]**, *** (100) <6.0 (0) 9.0 [8.9–9.3]**, *** (100) <6.0 (0)
  Atopobium cluster 7.9 [7.4–7.9] (42) NT 6.2 [5.7–6.5] (30) 8.3 [8.1–8.4] (18) 6.9 [6.3–7.7] (30) 8.4 [8.2–8.6] (18) 6.7 [6.2–6.7] (30) 7.9 [7.5–8.2] (18)
  Prevotella 6.2 [6.1–6.2] (29) NT 5.4 [5.3–5.5] (20) 5.2 (9) 5.1 (10) 5.7 (9) 6.4 (10) 5.6 (9)
  C. perfringens <2.1 (0) NT 2.9 (10) <2.1 (0) <2.1 (0) <2.1 (0) 2.7 (10) 2.7 (9)
Facultative anaerobes
  Total Lactobacillus 5.0 [5.0–5.9] (57) NT 5.4 [5.1–5.7] (20) 3.2 [2.9–3.3] (27) 4.3 [3.6–4.9] (60) 3.2 [2.7–3.3] (27) 4.7 [3.9–4.8] (60) 3.7 [3.6–3.8] (27)
  Enterobacteriaceae 8.6 [8.2–8.7] (71) NT 7.5 [7.2–7.8] (60) 8.0 [7.8–8.8] (73) 7.5 [7.1–8.0]* (60) 8.5 [8.3–9.2] (82) 7.7 [7.0–8.1]*, **** (90) 9.4 [8.9–9.6]**** (91)
  Enterococcus 8.7 [8.3–9.6] (71) NT 8.2 [6.7–9.0] (70) 8.6 [8.2–9.5] (82) 8.4 [7.5–9.4]**** (100) 8.5 [8.2–8.8] (100) 8.3 [8.0–8.8] (100) 8.5 [7.9–9.5] (100)
  Staphylococcus 8.1 [7.2–9.1] (71) NT 6.9 [6.4–7.4] (90) 8.5 [6.3–9.0] (100) 6.2 [5.1–7.2]**** (80) 6.7 [5.5–7.2] (100) 6.3 [5.1–6.7]* (100) 7.2 [6.8–8.1] (100)
Obligate aerobes
  Pseudomonas 4.3 (14) NT <2.9 (0) 3.5 [3.1–3.6] (27) 3.4 (10) 3.5 [3.5–3.5] (18) <2.9 (0)* 3.9 [3.7–4.5] (36)
  1. Values are median log10 cells/g [IQR] (% detection rate). NT not tested. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01 vs. group B, ***p < 0.05 vs. before initiating BBG, ****p < 0.05 vs. before surgery.