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Table 2 The comparison of infectious subgroups

From: Procalcitonin for the differential diagnosis of infectious and non-infectious systemic inflammatory response syndrome after cardiac surgery

  Sepsis (n = 11) Severe sepsis without shock (n = 12) Septic shock (n = 24) p value
Age (year) 70.6 ± 13.7 65.2 ± 19.0 67.8 ± 15.3 0.716
Gender, n (%)     0.058
 Male 5 (45.5) 11 (91.7) 16 (66.7)  
 Female 6 (54.5) 1 (8.3) 8 (33.3)  
BMI, kg/m2 21.6 (18.4,24.1) 20.6 (20.1,21.7) 23.9 (20.5,28.8) 0.090
Concomitant disease, n (%)     
 Diabetes mellitus 3 (27.3) 6 (50.0) 9 (37.5) 0.531
 Hypertension 5 (45.5) 3 (25.0) 12 (50.0) 0.351
 CKD 4 (36.4) 2 (16.7) 13 (54.2) 0.001
CPB duration, min 102.0 ± 129.4 187.5 ± 134.8 245.6 ± 133.4 0.017
Aortic cross clamping, min 69.4 ± 92.4 108.8 ± 84.2 107.8 ± 111.4 0.542
Operation time, min 418.5 ± 136.1 540.8 ± 121.7 534.5 ± 231.9 0.206
Blood loss, mL 802 (398,2489) 6790 (1364,8324) 2530 (1227,4961) 0.019
APACHE II 15.5 ± 6.1 16.8 ± 7.6 23.5 ± 6.2 0.002
SOFA 5.5 ± 1.4 5.9 ± 2.9 8.2 ± 2.5 0.004
ICU stay, day 12.0 (4.0,23.0) 13.0 (7.3,24.5) 49.5 (17.8,81) 0.001
Hospital stay, day 60.9 ± 59.6 114.2 ± 85.5 124.5 ± 101.0 0.152
30-Day mortality, n (%) 0 0 3 (12.5) 0.215
Hospital mortality, n (%) 0 0 22 (91.7) 0.001
MV duration, h 40.0 (16.0,183.0) 58.5 (13.5,404.3) 992.5 (276.3,1559.3) 0.001
CRRT, n (%) 3 (27.3) 2 (16.7) 21 (87.5) 0.001
PMX-DHP, n (%) 0 0 17 (70.8) 0.001
ECMO, n (%) 0 1 (8.3) 12 (50.0) 0.001
DIC, n (%) 0 1 (8.3) 22 (91.7) 0.024
PCT, ng/mL 1.37 (0.72,1.85) 3.16 (0.48,13.24) 3.68 (1.67,20.96) 0.024
WBC, ×103/μL 12.40 (9.10,24.20) 13.30 (9.93,16.93) 20.40 (13.45,28.6) 0.060
CRP, mg/dL 12.00 (7.40,18.00) 13.57 (8.17,18.13) 17.11 (15.15,30.6) 0.009
Gram positive, n (%)     
 MRSA 0 0 6 (25.0) 0.037
S. epidermidis 2 (18.7) 4 (33.3) 1 (4.2) 0.064
E. faecalia 0 0 3 (12.5) 0.215
C. striatum 0 0 3 (12.5) 0.215
Gram negative, n (%)     
S. marcescens 0 2 (16.7) 2 (8.3) 0.359
P. aeruginosa 1 (9.1) 1 (8.3) 3 (12.5) 0.913
B. cepacia 1 (9.1) 1 (8.3) 1 (4.2) 0.815
K. pneumoniae 1 (9.1) 1 (8.3) 0 0.335
Candida, n (%)     
C. albicans 4 (36.4) 2 (16.7) 3 (12.5) 0.242
C. glabrata 0 0 2 (8.3) 0.368
C. parapsilosis 0 1 (8.3) 1 (4.2) 0.613
C. tropicalis 1 (9.1) 1 (8.3) 1 (4.2) 0.815
  1. MRSA methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus; for other abbreviations, see Table 1.